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Cash Crops Of Pakistan Essay With Outline Maps

In this article we’ll show you how to use mind maps for essay writing. Mind maps can not only make this often dreadful task a whole lot easier, but also save you a huge amount of time. If you want to learn how this simple yet effective technique works, just follow the steps as outlined below.

What Is a Mind Map?

A mind map is a diagram that displays information visually. You can create mind maps using pen and paper, or you can use an online mind mapping tool such as MindMeister. Whatever you use, the rules for creating a mind map are simple:

1) Write the subject in the center of your paper / canvas.

2) Draw branches that point away from the center. Each branch symbolizes one thought or idea related to the subject. Use meaningful keywords to write these ideas onto the branches.

3) From each branch more ideas can branch off.

4) Use colors, icons and images whenever possible. These function as mental triggers and can help spark new ideas in you, which is important during brainstorming sessions.

Now that you know how to create a basic mind map, let’s go over how you can use mind maps for essay writing.

Step 1: Using a Mind Map to Find a Good Topic for Your Essay

If you have the opportunity to choose the topic for your paper yourself, try to find one that’s been covered by other researchers before, but still gives you a chance to come up with new findings and conclusions. If you choose a topic that has already been explored in depth by a gazillion other researchers, you might be hard pressed to develop a unique perspective.

Ideally, the topic should be something you are also personally interested in, or at least something you can relate to in some way. This will make the whole task of writing your essay a little less dreadful. The best way to find such a topic is a brainstorming session.

How to brainstorm topic ideas in a mind map

Create a new mind map and simply write “My Essay” or “My Paper” in the center of the map. Now, start adding ideas around the center. These can be things your professor suggested, related subjects you discussed in class, or anything else relevant to get you started.

Next, note down your own areas of interest and see where they intersect with the former. Once you have a few good ideas for the subject of your paper, you can start weighing them against each other, noting down pros and cons. Eliminate topics until you’re left with only one. This will be the topic of your paper.

In the example below, the only requirement that had been given was to write a paper about literature from the English Renaissance. You’ll see various famous writers of this time mentioned in the map, as well as various aspects of their work that could be examined in a paper, such as the symbolism, dramatic conflicts or themes.

Step 2: Start the Research Process

While working through both primary and secondary sources, it’s quite easy to get confused about the numerous arguments and counterarguments. Many students get frustrated and waste a lot of time just trying to figure out how to make all the different pieces of information fit together into a coherent text.

What you need, therefore, is a system to collect and structure all this information in one central place, so you can easily review the materials while you write.

How to collect research in a mind map

Create a new mind map for each source (book, article, essay) you read and take notes in this mind map while you work through the text. Alternatively, you can use one single map where you list all your sources and create child topics for every page/paragraph/quote you want to use in your paper.

In the map below, you’ll see that – based on our initial brainstorming session – we chose ‘Love in Romeo and Juliet’ as the topic of our paper. For our research map, we wrote this topic in the center and created individual branches for each source we read. Next to the book title, we noted down the topics covered in the source, its central question as well as important passages that we thought we might want to quote in our essay.

Here are some practical tips to set you up for success:

  • Use colors, arrows and icons to indicate connections between the arguments and quotes.
  • Be sure to add the page numbers to the topics in your map so you can quickly go back to do some more fact checking if necessary. If you’re working with online sources you can also attach their links directly to the topics in your map.
  • As you go along, you can restructure the sources according to topics, which usually provides a better overview of the material you have available for each section of your paper.

Here’s another example of a research map. This is the map we used to take notes while reading Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, the subject of our paper. As you can see, we created branches for each of the text passages we wanted to analyze in the essay.

Step 3: Outline Your Paper in a Mind Map

Before you start with the actual writing, it’s very important that you first create an outline of your paper. This will help you create a coherent structure of your arguments, counterarguments, examples, quotes, and the sources you want to reference in each argument.

You can quickly review this outline whenever you get sidetracked in your writing process, or when you’re unsure about how to continue. A mind map is a great format for such an outline because it provides you with a visual overview of your thesis statement and the entire text structure.

If you’re using mind mapping software such as MindMeister, you can also…

  • Link the individual topics in your map with the respective research maps you’ve created.
  • Add notes and deadlines to each step to make sure your writing stays on schedule.
  • Export your finished outline as a Word document and use it as the basis for your paper.

Using mind maps to plan and outline your essay will not only make the writing process a lot easier, it will also enable you to work through sources more efficiently and help you find information more quickly. Of course, you can use mind mapping for all types of writing assignments – from essays to short stories and from book reports to blog posts. Try it out!

See also: The Student’s Guide to Mind Mapping

For the Rascalz album, see Cash Crop (album).

A cash crop or profit crop is an agriculturalcrop which is grown for sale to return a profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm. The term is used to differentiate marketed crops from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family. In earlier times cash crops were usually only a small (but vital) part of a farm's total yield, while today, especially in developed countries, almost all crops are mainly grown for revenue. In the least developed countries, cash crops are usually crops which attract demand in more developed nations, and hence have some export value.

Prices for major cash crops are set in commodity markets with global scope, with some local variation (termed as "basis") based on freight costs and local supply and demand balance. A consequence of this is that a nation, region, or individual producer relying on such a crop may suffer low prices should a bumper crop elsewhere lead to excess supply on the global markets. This system has been criticized by traditional farmers. Coffee is an example of a product that has been susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations.

Globalization[edit]

Issues involving subsidies and trade barriers on such crops have become controversial in discussions of globalization. Many developing countries take the position that the current international trade system is unfair because it has caused tariffs to be lowered in industrial goods while allowing for low tariffs and agricultural subsidies for agricultural goods.[clarification needed] This makes it difficult for a developing nation to export its goods overseas, and forces developing nations to compete with imported goods which are exported from developed nations at artificially low prices. The practice of exporting at artificially low prices is known as dumping,[2] and is illegal in most nations. Controversy over this issue led to the collapse of the Cancún trade talks in 2003, when the Group of 22 refused to consider agenda items proposed by the European Union unless the issue of agricultural subsidies was addressed.

Per climate zones[edit]

Arctic[edit]

The Arctic climate is generally not conducive for the cultivation of cash crops. However, one potential cash crop for the Arctic is Rhodiola rosea, a hardy plant used as a medicinal herb that grows in the Arctic.[3] There is currently consumer demand for the plant, but the available supply is less than the demand (as of 2011).[3]

Temperate[edit]

Cash crops grown in regions with a temperate climate include many cereals (wheat, rye, corn, barley, oats), oil-yielding crops (e.g. rapeseed, mustard seeds), vegetables (e.g. potatoes), tree fruit or top fruit (e.g. apples, cherries) and soft fruit (e.g. strawberries, raspberries).

Subtropical[edit]

In regions with a subtropical climate, oil-yielding crops (e.g. soybeans) and some vegetables and herbs are the predominant cash crops.

Tropical[edit]

In regions with a tropical climate, coffee,[4]cocoa, sugar cane, bananas, oranges, cotton and jute (a soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads), are common cash crops. The oil palm is a tropical palm tree, and the fruit from it is used to make palm oil.[5]

By continent and country[edit]

Africa[edit]

Around 60 percent of African workers are employed in the agricultural sector, with about three-fifths of African farmers being subsistence farmers.[citation needed] For example, in Burkina Faso 85% of its residents (over two million people) are reliant upon cotton production for income, and over half of the country's population lives in poverty.[6] Larger farms tend to grow cash crops such as coffee,[7]tea,[7]cotton, cocoa, fruit[7] and rubber. These farms, typically operated by large corporations, cover tens of square kilometres and employ large numbers of laborers. Subsistence farms provide a source of food and a relatively small income for families, but generally fail to produce enough to make re-investment possible.

The situation in which African nations export crops while a significant number of people on the continent struggle with hunger has been blamed on developed countries, including the United States,[6]Japan and the European Union.[citation needed] These countries protect their own agricultural sectors, through high import tariffs and offer subsidies to their farmers,[6] which some have contended is leading to the overproduction of commodities such as cotton,[6] grain and milk.[citation needed] The result of this is that the global price of such products is continually reduced until Africans are unable to compete in world markets,[6] except in cash crops that do not grow easily in temperate climates.[6]

Africa has realized significant growth in biofuelplantations, many of which are on lands which were purchased by British companies.[8]Jatropha curcas is a cash crop grown for biofuel production in Africa.[8][9] Some have criticized the practice of raising non-food plants for export while Africa has problems with hunger and food shortages, and some studies have correlated the proliferation of land acquisitions, often for use to grow non-food cash crops with increasing hunger rates in Africa.[8][9][10]

Australia[edit]

Australia produces significant amounts of lentils.[11][12] It was estimated in 2010 that Australia would produce approximately 143,000 tons of lentils.[11] Most of Australia's lentil harvest is exported to the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East.[11]

Italy[edit]

Italy's Cassa per il Mezzogiorno in 1950 led to the government implementing incentives to grow cash crops such as tomatoes, tobacco and citrus fruits. As a result they created an over abundance of these crops causing an over saturation of these crops on the global market. This caused these crops to depreciate in value

United States[edit]

See also: List of U.S. state foods

Cash cropping in the United States rose to prominence after the baby boomer generation and the end of World War II. It was seen as a way to feed the large population boom and continues to be the main factor in having an affordable food supply in the United States. According to the 1997 U.S. Census of Agriculture, 90% of the farms in the United States are still owned by families, with an additional 6% owned by a partnership.[13] Cash crop farmers have utilized precision agricultural technologies[14] combined with time-tested practices to produce affordable food. Based upon United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) statistics for 2010, states with the highest fruit production quantities are California, Florida and Washington.[15]

Vietnam[edit]

Coconut is a cash crop of Vietnam.[16]

Global cash crops[edit]

Coconut palms are cultivated in more than 80 countries of the world, with a total production of 61 million tonnes per year.[17] The oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking and frying; coconut oil is also widely used in soaps and cosmetics.

Sustainability of cash crops[edit]

Approximately 70% of the world’s food is produced by 500 million smallholder farmers[citation needed]. For their livelihood they depend on the production of cash crops, basic commodities that are hard to differentiate in the market. The great majority (80%) of the world’s farms measure 2 hectares or less.[18] These smallholder farmers are mainly found in developing countries and are often unorganized, illiterate or enjoyed only basic education. Smallholder farmers have little bargaining power and incomes are low, leading to a situation in which they cannot invest much in upscaling their businesses. In general, farmers lack access to agricultural inputs and finance, and do not have enough knowledge on good agricultural and business practices. These high level problems are in many cases threatening the future of agricultural sectors and theories start evolving on how to secure a sustainable future for agriculture. Sustainable market transformations are initiated in which industry leaders work together in a pre-competitive environment to change market conditions. Sustainable intensification focuses on facilitating entrepreneurial farmers. To stimulate farm investment, projects on access to finance for agriculture are also popping up. One example is the SCOPE methodology,[19] an assessment tool that measures the management maturity and professionalism of producer organizations as to give financing organizations better insights in the risks involved in financing. Currently agricultural finance is always considered risky and avoided by financial institutions.

Black market cash crops[edit]

Coca, opium poppies and cannabis are significant black market cash crops, the prevalence of which varies. In the United States, cannabis is considered by some to be the most valuable cash crop.[20] In 2006, it was reported in a study by Jon Gettman, a marijuana policy researcher, that in contrast to government figures for legal crops such as corn and wheat and using the study's projections for U.S. cannabis production at that time, cannabis was cited as "the top cash crop in 12 states and among the top three cash crops in 30".[20] The study also estimated cannabis production at the time (in 2006) to be valued at $35.8 billion USD, which exceeded the combined value of corn at $23.3 billion and wheat at $7.5 billion.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abUSDA-Foreign Agriculture Service. "(Cotton) Production Ranking MY 2011". National Cotton Council of America. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
  2. ^Van den Bosche, Peter (2005). The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-511-12392-4.  
  3. ^ ab"Medicinal Arctic herb: Alaska's next (legal) cash crop?". Alaska Dispatch. February 17, 2011. Retrieved April 9, 2012. 
  4. ^Ellis, Blake (September 10, 2010). "Coffee prices on the rise". CNN Money. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
  5. ^Reeves, James B.; Weihrauch, John L.; Consumer and Food Economics Institute (1979). Composition of foods: fats and oils. Agriculture handbook 8-4. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. p. 4. OCLC 5301713. 
  6. ^ abcdefBorders, Max; Burnett, H. Sterling (March 24, 2006). "Farm Subsidies: Devastating the World's Poor and the Environment". National Center for Policy Analysis. Retrieved April 6, 2012. 
  7. ^ abc"Guides: Poverty in Africa – Growing cash crops". BBC. June 9, 2005. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  8. ^ abcCarrington, Damian; Valentino, Stefano (May 31, 2011). "Biofuels boom in Africa as British firms lead rush on land for plantations". The Guardian. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  9. ^ abTimilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish (July 2010). "Biofuels: Markets, Targets and Impacts"(PDF). The World Bank. Retrieved April 6, 2012. 
  10. ^Bunting, Madeleine (January 28, 2011). "How land grabs in Africa could herald a new dystopian age of hunger". The Guardian. Retrieved April 6, 2012. 
  11. ^ abcStaight, Kerry (February 28, 2010). "Humble lentil turns into cash crop". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  12. ^Courtney, Pip (February 13, 2000). "Lentils offer farmers a better cash crop alternative". Australian Broadcasting Corporation (Landline). Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  13. ^"Ag 101: Demographics". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. September 10, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
  14. ^Creamer, Jamie (February 2, 2011). "Alabama growers reap big savings with precision ag". Southeast Farm Press. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
  15. ^"Fruit and Nut Crops (California)"(PDF). USDA National Agriculture Statistics Service. October 28, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2012. 
  16. ^"Coconut growers switch crops". Viet Nam News. February 20, 2012. Retrieved April 7, 2012. 
  17. ^Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Economic And Social Department. Statistics Division. (September 2, 2010). FAOSTAT – Production – Crops [Selected annual data]. Retrieved April 14, 2011 from the FAOSTAT Database.
  18. ^Fair Trade International Report from 2013
  19. ^SCOPE methodology
  20. ^ abcdVenkataraman, Nitya (December 18, 2006). "Marijuana Called Top U.S. Cash Crop". ABC News. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
  • Ryan, Orla (August 23, 2002). "Aid workers grope for famine causes". BBC News. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  • Olley, Lola (June 29, 2009). "Could This Be Africa's Next Cash Crop?". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  • Staff (April 3, 2012). "Native plants, herbal supplements could be cash crops for North Country, SLU prof says". North Country Now. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
  • Lonergan, Kerry (November 5, 2008). "Cash Crops". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  • "Cash Crop – AWB Scandal (Report)". The Age. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  • Rowbotham, Jill (July 28, 2010). "High yield expected from cash for crop research". The Australian. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  • Nepru Working paper #80, The Nambian Economic Policy Research Unit. Hopolang Phororo.
  • Hillstrom, Kevin; Hillstrom, Laurie Collier (2003). Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica: A Continental Overview of Environmental Issues. ABC-CLIO, Inc. pp. 73–119. Retrieved April 9, 2012. ISBN 1576076954

External links[edit]

Look up cash crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cash crop.
  • FAOSTAT – food balance sheets from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Bita, Natasha (February 3, 2010). "Seeing slime as a cash crop". The Australian. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
A cotton ball. Cotton is a significant cash crop. According to the National Cotton Council of America, in 2014, China was the world's largest cotton-producing country with an estimated 100,991,000 480-pound bales.[1] India was ranked second at 42,185,000 480-pound bales.[1]
Oranges are a significant U.S. cash crop.
Sliced sugarcane, a significant cash crop in Hawaii

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